Cov tshuaj rau ntshav siab (Hypertension)

Lwm lub npe: Drug-Induced Hypertension

Ntshav siab yog ib lo lus uas siv los lees paub tias tus neeg lub siab ntshav siab tshaj qhov uas suav tias yog ib txwm muaj. Ntshav siab kuj hu ua ntshav siab.

Kev ntsuas qee tus neeg lub siab ua rau peb qhia tau tias lawv lub siab ua haujlwm zoo npaum li cas txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau nws, nws qhov ntsuas, qhov ntsuas ib tus neeg, kev ntsuas qee tus neeg cov ntshav, nws qhia peb tias lawv lub siab ua haujlwm tau zoo npaum li cas los tso ntshav nyob ib puag ncig lawv lub cev. Yog tias lawv lub plawv thiab cov hlab ntsha ua haujlwm tau zoo, ces lawv cov ntshav siab yuav zoo li qub lossis qis dua me ntsis. Yog tias lawv lub plawv yuav tsum tau ua haujlwm hnyav heev txhawm rau txhawm rau nqus cov ntshav ncig lawv lub cev, ces lawv cov ntshav yuav siab.



Ntshav siab yog tsim los ntawm ob qhov kev ntsuas.

  • Thawj cov ntaub ntawv yog hu ua systolic siab thiab nws ntsuas lub zog lub plawv yuav tsum tau twj tso kua mis tawm tsam kom tau cov ntshav ntws nyob ib ncig ntawm lub cev. Nws tuaj yeem qhia tau tias cov hlab ntsha hloov tau yooj yim npaum li cas. Thaum lub sij hawm ntsuas no, cov ntshav siab cuff inflates mus rau ib qho twg thiab sau tseg tias lub siab nyob ib ncig ntawm caj npab nres cov ntshav ntws.
  • Qhov thib ob kaw yog hu ua diastolic siab. Qhov no ntsuas lub siab so thaum lub plawv so ntawm lub plawv dhia. Nws raug kaw thaum cov ntshav siab cuff yog deflating.

Cov kws tshaj lij feem ntau xav txog cov ntshav siab ib txwm yog 120/80 mm Hg. Qhov zoo tshaj plaws, txhua tus neeg cov ntshav siab yuav tsum qis dua 130/80 mm Hg. Yog tias thawj tus lej siab dua 130 lossis tus lej thib ob yog siab dua 80 ces tus neeg tau hais tias muaj ntshav siab.

Cov tsos mob ntawm ntshav siab yog dab tsi?

Cov neeg feem coob tsis muaj tsos mob thaum lawv cov ntshav siab. Qee zaum tib neeg tuaj yeem mob taub hau lossis tsis xis nyob; Txawm li cas los xij, feem ntau tsis txuas cov tsos mob tsis meej xws li ua rau lawv lub siab.

Yog tias ntshav siab tsis kho, nws tuaj yeem ua rau cov hlab ntsha puas tsuaj thiab ua rau tus neeg muaj mob stroke lossis plawv nres. Nws kuj ua rau lub plawv loj thiab tsis muaj zog vim nws qhov tseem ceeb hnav nws tus kheej los ntawm kev ua haujlwm hnyav heev los thawb cov ntshav ncig lub cev. Cov neeg uas muaj ntshav siab kuj tseem muaj peev xwm tsim cov roj cholesterol siab, teeb meem rau lub raum thiab qhov muag, thiab muaj kev tsis zoo ntawm cov ceg thiab taw.

Mob ntshav siab li cas?

Nws tsis yog qhov tsis yooj yim rau koj cov ntshav siab mus rau qee zaus; Txawm li cas los xij, nws yog qhov mob ntshav siab tsis tu ncua uas yog ib qho kev txhawj xeeb. Vim li no, yog tus kws kho mob lossis tus kws saib xyuas neeg mob coj koj cov ntshav siab thiab nws siab tab sis koj tsis muaj qhov pheej hmoo lossis cov tsos mob, ces tsawg kawg ob qhov kev ntsuas cais yuav tsum tau ua ua ntej koj kuaj ntshav siab.

Ua ntej tau txais koj cov ntshav siab, koj yuav tsum zam cov hauv qab no tsawg kawg ib teev ua ntej ntsuas:

  • Kev tawm dag zog
  • Kev haus luam yeeb
  • Caffeine
  • Noj
  • Cov xwm txheej ntxhov siab.

Zaum tsawg kawg tsib feeb ua ntej nyeem ntawv thiab tsis txhob tham thaum nws ntsuas.

Lwm yam kev kuaj yuav raug txiav txim yog tias koj tus kws kho mob txiav txim siab tias koj muaj ntshav siab. Cov no yuav suav nrog kev kuaj ntshav, electrocardiogram, thiab qee zaum x-ray hauv siab.

Kev Kho Mob Ntshav Siab Li Cas?

Kev kho mob nyob ntawm seb koj cov ntshav siab npaum li cas. Rau cov neeg uas nws qhov kev nyeem ntawv systolic poob rau hauv thaj tsam 120 txog 129 thiab qhov kev nyeem diastolic yog sib npaug los yog tsawg dua 80, kev hloov hauv kev ua neej feem ntau pom zoo siv tshuaj. Cov no yuav suav nrog:

  • poob phaus yog tias koj rog dhau
  • Noj cov zaub mov uas muaj txiv hmab txiv ntoo thiab zaub
  • Noj ntsev tsawg
  • Noj tsawg saturated rog
  • Ua kom lub cev muaj zog
  • Kev ua kom lub cev ntau dua
  • Txwv tsis pub haus cawv.

Yog tias kev kho mob pom tau tias tsim nyog, qee zaum muaj ntau tshaj ib qho tshuaj. Cov tshuaj rau ntshav siab muaj xws li:

  • Diuretics
  • Beta-blockers
  • ACE inhibitors
  • Angiotensin-receptor blockers
  • Calcium channel blockers
  • Alpha-blockers.

Saib ntxiv: cov ntsiab lus sub

Cov tshuaj siv los kho cov ntshav siab

Cov npe tshuaj hauv qab no yog qee txoj hauv kev cuam tshuam nrog, lossis siv los kho tus mob no.

doxycycline hyclate 100 mg tab
Xaiv chav kawm tshuajTxhua chav kawm tshuaj Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (18) antiadrenergic agents, peripherally acting (8) antiadrenergic agents, centrally acting (6) antianginal agents (9) calcium channel blocking agents (33) vasodilators (12) angiotensin receptor loopers (15) (4) potassium-sparing diuretics (7) thiazide diuretics (13) cardioselective beta blockers (12) non-cardioselective beta blockers (12) cox-2 inhibitors (2) antihyperlipidemic ua ke (2) aldosterone receptor antagonists (5) renin inhibitors ( 2) pawg II antiarrhythmics (6) pawg IV antiarrhythmics (15) ACE inhibitors nrog thiazides (11) antiadrenergic cov neeg ua haujlwm (central) nrog thiazides (2) lwm yam tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob ua ke (10) beta blockers nrog thiazides (14) angiotensin II 14) potassium sparing diuretics nrog thiazides (7) ACE inhibitors nrog calcium channel thaiv cov neeg ua haujlwm (7) angiotensin II inhibitors nrog calcium channel blockers (6)Rx OTC Off-label Tsuas yog Generics Tshuaj npe
Kev ntsuas Kev tshuaj xyuas Kev ua si ? Rx/OTC Pregniam CSA Cawv
Saib cov ntaub ntawv hais txog lisinopril lisinopril 4.9 525tshuaj xyuas Rx D N

Lub npe dav: lisinopril systemic

Hom tshuaj npe: Prinivil, Zestril, Qbrelis

Chav kawm tshuaj: Angiotensin Hloov Enzyme Inhibitors

Rau cov neeg siv khoom: koob tshuaj , kev sib tham , kev mob tshwm sim

Rau cov kws tshaj lij: A-Z Drug Facts , AHFS DI Monograph , Cov Lus Qhia

Saib cov ntaub ntawv hais txog amlodipine amlodipine 3.8 593 ibtshuaj xyuas Rx C N

Lub npe dav: amlodipine systemic

Hom tshuaj npe: Norvasc, Katerzia

Chav kawm tshuaj: calcium channel thaiv cov neeg ua haujlwm

Rau cov neeg siv khoom: koob tshuaj , kev sib tham , kev mob tshwm sim

Rau cov kws tshaj lij: A-Z Drug Facts , AHFS DI Monograph , Cov Lus Qhia

Saib cov ntaub ntawv hais txog losartan losartan 4.6 485 ibtshuaj xyuas Rx D N

Lub npe dav: losartan systemic

Hom Lub Npe: Cozaar

Chav kawm tshuaj: Cov tshuaj angiotensin receptor blockers

Rau cov neeg siv khoom: koob tshuaj , kev sib tham , kev mob tshwm sim

Rau cov kws tshaj lij: A-Z Drug Facts , AHFS DI Monograph , Cov Lus Qhia

Saib cov ntaub ntawv hais txog hydrochlorothiazide hydrochlorothiazide 5.1 140tshuaj xyuas Rx B N X

Lub npe dav: hydrochlorothiazide systemic

Hom tshuaj npe: Microzide, Aquazide H, Esidrix

Chav kawm tshuaj: thiazide diuretics

Rau cov neeg siv khoom: koob tshuaj , kev sib tham , kev mob tshwm sim

Rau cov kws tshaj lij: A-Z Drug Facts , AHFS DI Monograph , Cov Lus Qhia

Saib cov ntaub ntawv hais txog metoprolol metoprolol 5.3 239tshuaj xyuas Rx C N X

Lub npe dav: metoprolol systemic

kev cob qhia tiv thaiv kev tiv thaiv pob txha zoo li cas?

Hom tshuaj npe: Toprol-XL, Lopressor, Kapspargo Sprinkle

Chav kawm tshuaj: cardioselective beta-blockers

Rau cov neeg siv khoom: koob tshuaj , kev sib tham , kev mob tshwm sim

Rau cov kws tshaj lij: A-Z Drug Facts , AHFS DI Monograph , Cov Lus Qhia

Saib cov ntaub ntawv hais txog atenolol tshuaj atenolol 6.6 116tshuaj xyuas Rx D N X

Lub npe dav: atenolol systemic tshuaj

Hom Lub Npe: Tenormin

Chav kawm tshuaj: cardioselective beta-blockers

Rau cov neeg siv khoom: koob tshuaj , kev sib tham , kev mob tshwm sim

Rau cov kws tshaj lij: A-Z Drug Facts , AHFS DI Monograph , Cov Lus Qhia

Saib cov ntaub ntawv hais txog Norvasc Norvasc 4.2 86tshuaj xyuas Rx C N

Lub npe dav: amlodipine systemic

Chav kawm tshuaj: calcium channel thaiv cov neeg ua haujlwm

Rau cov neeg siv khoom: koob tshuaj , kev sib tham , kev mob tshwm sim

Rau cov kws tshaj lij: Cov Lus Qhia

Saib cov ntaub ntawv hais txog carvedilol carvedilol 4.0 88tshuaj xyuas Rx C N X

Lub npe dav: carvedilol systemic

Hom tshuaj npe: Coreg, Coreg CR

Chav kawm tshuaj: tsis-cardioselective beta blockers

Rau cov neeg siv khoom: koob tshuaj , kev sib tham , kev mob tshwm sim

Rau cov kws tshaj lij: A-Z Drug Facts , AHFS DI Monograph , Cov Lus Qhia

Saib cov ntaub ntawv hais txog Benicar benicar 7.2 109tshuaj xyuas Rx D N

Lub npe dav: olmesartan systemic ua

dab tsi yog pregelatinized hmoov txhuv nplej siab

Chav kawm tshuaj: Cov tshuaj angiotensin receptor blockers

Rau cov neeg siv khoom: koob tshuaj , kev sib tham , kev mob tshwm sim

Rau cov kws tshaj lij: Cov Lus Qhia

Saib cov ntaub ntawv hais txog furosemide furosemide 4.5 14tshuaj xyuas Rx C N X

Lub npe dav: furosemide systemic

Hom Lub Npe: Lasix

Chav kawm tshuaj: lub diuretics

Rau cov neeg siv khoom: koob tshuaj , kev sib tham , kev mob tshwm sim

Rau cov kws tshaj lij: A-Z Drug Facts , AHFS DI Monograph , Cov Lus Qhia

Saib cov ntaub ntawv hais txog Cozaar Cozaar 6.1 55tshuaj xyuas Rx D N

Lub npe dav: losartan systemic

Chav kawm tshuaj: Cov tshuaj angiotensin receptor blockers

Rau cov neeg siv khoom: koob tshuaj , kev sib tham , kev mob tshwm sim

Rau cov kws tshaj lij: Cov Lus Qhia

Saib cov ntaub ntawv hais txog clonidine clonidine 6.1 93tshuaj xyuas Rx C N X

Lub npe dav: clonidine systemic

Hom tshuaj npe: Catapres, Catapres-TTS

Chav kawm tshuaj: antiadrenergic neeg sawv cev, centrally acting

Rau cov neeg siv khoom: koob tshuaj , kev sib tham , kev mob tshwm sim

Rau cov kws tshaj lij: A-Z Drug Facts , AHFS DI Monograph , Cov Lus Qhia

Saib cov ntaub ntawv hais txog hydrochlorothiazide / lisinopril hydrochlorothiazide / lisinopril 5.7 70tshuaj xyuas Rx D N X

Lub npe dav: hydrochlorothiazide / lisinopril systemic

Hom Lub Npe: Zestoretic

Chav kawm tshuaj: ACE inhibitors nrog thiazides

Rau cov neeg siv khoom: koob tshuaj , kev sib tham , kev mob tshwm sim

Rau cov kws tshaj lij: A-Z Drug Facts , Cov Lus Qhia

Saib cov ntaub ntawv hais txog Bystolic Bystolic 6.1 201tshuaj xyuas Rx C N X

Lub npe dav: nebivolol systemic

Chav kawm tshuaj: cardioselective beta-blockers

Rau cov neeg siv khoom: koob tshuaj , kev sib tham , kev mob tshwm sim

Rau cov kws tshaj lij: Cov Lus Qhia

Saib cov ntaub ntawv hais txog Diovan Diovan 6.5 59tshuaj xyuas Rx D N

Lub npe dav: valsartan systemic ua

Chav kawm tshuaj: Cov tshuaj angiotensin receptor blockers

Rau cov neeg siv khoom: koob tshuaj , kev sib tham , kev mob tshwm sim

Rau cov kws tshaj lij: Cov Lus Qhia

Saib cov ntaub ntawv hais txog Toprol-XL Toprol-XL 6.7 3. 4tshuaj xyuas Rx C N X

Lub npe dav: metoprolol systemic

Chav kawm tshuaj: cardioselective beta-blockers

Rau cov neeg siv khoom: koob tshuaj , kev sib tham , kev mob tshwm sim

Rau cov kws tshaj lij: Cov Lus Qhia

systane tshuav nyiaj li cas tshwm sim
Saib cov ntaub ntawv hais txog Lopressor Lopressor 6.2 10tshuaj xyuas Rx C N X

Lub npe dav: metoprolol systemic

Chav kawm tshuaj: cardioselective beta-blockers

Rau cov neeg siv khoom: koob tshuaj , kev sib tham , kev mob tshwm sim

Rau cov kws tshaj lij: Cov Lus Qhia

Saib cov ntaub ntawv hais txog Avapro Avapro 5.2 37tshuaj xyuas Rx D N

Lub npe dav: irbesartan systemic ua

Chav kawm tshuaj: Cov tshuaj angiotensin receptor blockers

Rau cov neeg siv khoom: koob tshuaj , kev sib tham , kev mob tshwm sim

Rau cov kws tshaj lij: Cov Lus Qhia

Saib cov ntaub ntawv hais txog enalapril enalapril 5.2 17tshuaj xyuas Rx D N

Lub npe dav: enalapril systemic

Hom tshuaj npe: Vasotec, Epaned

Chav kawm tshuaj: Angiotensin Hloov Enzyme Inhibitors

Rau cov neeg siv khoom: koob tshuaj , kev sib tham , kev mob tshwm sim

Rau cov kws tshaj lij: A-Z Drug Facts , AHFS DI Monograph , Cov Lus Qhia

Saib cov ntaub ntawv hais txog valsartan valsartan 5.5 120tshuaj xyuas Rx D N

Lub npe dav: valsartan systemic ua

Hom Lub Npe: Diovan

Chav kawm tshuaj: Cov tshuaj angiotensin receptor blockers

Rau cov neeg siv khoom: koob tshuaj , kev sib tham , kev mob tshwm sim

Rau cov kws tshaj lij: A-Z Drug Facts , AHFS DI Monograph , Cov Lus Qhia

Saib cov ntaub ntawv hais txog Lasix Lasix 4.2 10tshuaj xyuas Rx C N X

Lub npe dav: furosemide systemic

Chav kawm tshuaj: lub diuretics

Rau cov neeg siv khoom: koob tshuaj , kev sib tham , kev mob tshwm sim

Rau cov kws tshaj lij: Cov Lus Qhia

Saib cov ntaub ntawv hais txog Prinivil Prinivil 5.5 10tshuaj xyuas Rx D N

Lub npe dav: lisinopril systemic

Chav kawm tshuaj: Angiotensin Hloov Enzyme Inhibitors

Rau cov neeg siv khoom: koob tshuaj , kev sib tham , kev mob tshwm sim

Rau cov kws tshaj lij: Cov Lus Qhia

Saib cov ntaub ntawv hais txog spironolactone spironolactone 5.5 39tshuaj xyuas Rx C N X

Lub npe dav: spironolactone systemic

Hom tshuaj npe: Aldactone, CaroSpir

Chav kawm tshuaj: potassium-sparing diuretics , aldosterone receptor antagonists

Rau cov neeg siv khoom: koob tshuaj , kev sib tham , kev mob tshwm sim

Rau cov kws tshaj lij: A-Z Drug Facts , AHFS DI Monograph , Cov Lus Qhia

prednisone tawg ntau npaum rau mob caj dab
Saib cov ntaub ntawv hais txog Zestril Zestril 6.7 12tshuaj xyuas Rx D N

Lub npe dav: lisinopril systemic

Chav kawm tshuaj: Angiotensin Hloov Enzyme Inhibitors

Rau cov neeg siv khoom: koob tshuaj , kev sib tham , kev mob tshwm sim

Rau cov kws tshaj lij: Cov Lus Qhia

Saib cov ntaub ntawv hais txog hydralazine hydralazine 2.7 70tshuaj xyuas Rx C N

Lub npe dav: hydralazine systemic

Hom Lub Npe: Apresoline

Chav kawm tshuaj: vasodilators

Rau cov neeg siv khoom: koob tshuaj , kev sib tham , kev mob tshwm sim

Rau cov kws tshaj lij: A-Z Drug Facts , AHFS DI Monograph , Cov Lus Qhia

Cov ncauj lus hauv qab Ntshav Siab

Lwm txoj kev kho mob ntshav siab

Cov khoom hauv qab no raug suav tias yog lwm txoj kev kho mob lossis tshuaj kho mob ntshav siab. Lawv cov kev ua tau zoo yuav tsis tau raug tshawb fawb kom zoo ib yam li cov tshuaj uas tau teev tseg hauv cov lus saum toj no. Txawm li cas los xij, tej zaum yuav muaj keeb kwm, kab lis kev cai lossis cov ntaub ntawv pov thawj txuas nrog lawv siv rau kev kho mob ntshav siab.

Lus dab neeg

Kev ntsuas Rau kev ntsuam xyuas, cov neeg siv tau nug seb lawv pom cov tshuaj zoo li cas thaum txiav txim siab qhov zoo / qhov tsis zoo thiab kev siv yooj yim (1 = tsis zoo, 10 = zoo tshaj).
Kev ua si Kev ua ub no yog ua raws li cov neeg tuaj saib hauv lub vev xaib tsis ntev los no txheeb ze rau lwm cov tshuaj hauv cov npe.
Rx Tshuaj tsuas xwb.
OTC Tshaj Tawm.
Rx/OTC Tshuaj los yog Tshaj Tawm.
Off-label Cov tshuaj no yuav tsis pom zoo los ntawm FDA rau kev kho tus mob no.
Teb chaws USA Daim Ntawv Tso Cai Siv Thaum Muaj Xwm Ceev (EUA) tso cai rau FDA tso cai rau cov khoom kho mob uas tsis tau tso cai los yog tsis pom zoo siv cov khoom kho mob uas tau pom zoo los siv rau hauv kev tshaj tawm kev noj qab haus huv rau pej xeem thaum muaj xwm txheej tsis txaus, pom zoo, thiab muaj lwm txoj hauv kev.
Ceg cev xeeb tub
A Cov kev tshawb fawb tsim nyog thiab tswj tau zoo tau ua tsis tiav qhov kev pheej hmoo rau tus me nyuam hauv plab thawj peb lub hlis twg ntawm cev xeeb tub (thiab tsis muaj pov thawj ntawm kev pheej hmoo tom qab peb lub hlis twg).
B Cov kev tshawb fawb txog tsiaj yug me nyuam tau ua tsis tiav los ua pov thawj tias muaj kev pheej hmoo rau tus menyuam hauv plab thiab tsis muaj kev tshawb fawb txaus thiab tswj tau zoo hauv cov poj niam cev xeeb tub.
C Cov kev tshawb fawb txog tsiaj yug me nyuam tau pom tias muaj kev cuam tshuam tsis zoo rau tus menyuam hauv plab thiab tsis muaj kev tshawb fawb txaus thiab tswj tau zoo hauv tib neeg, tab sis cov txiaj ntsig muaj peev xwm tuaj yeem siv rau cov poj niam cev xeeb tub txawm tias muaj kev pheej hmoo.
D Muaj cov pov thawj zoo ntawm tib neeg fetal kev pheej hmoo raws li cov ntaub ntawv tsis zoo los ntawm kev tshawb nrhiav lossis kev lag luam kev paub lossis kev tshawb fawb hauv tib neeg, tab sis cov txiaj ntsig muaj peev xwm tuaj yeem siv rau cov poj niam cev xeeb tub txawm tias muaj kev pheej hmoo.
X Cov kev tshawb fawb hauv cov tsiaj lossis tib neeg tau pom tias muaj qhov txawv txav ntawm tus menyuam hauv plab thiab / lossis muaj cov pov thawj zoo ntawm tib neeg fetal txaus ntshai raws li cov ntaub ntawv tsis zoo los ntawm kev tshawb nrhiav lossis kev lag luam, thiab cov kev pheej hmoo cuam tshuam rau kev siv cov poj niam cev xeeb tub kom meej meej tshaj qhov txiaj ntsig zoo.
N FDA tsis tau cais cov tshuaj.
Txoj Cai Tswj Cov Tshuaj (CSA) Teem caij
M Cov tshuaj muaj ntau lub sijhawm. Lub sij hawm yuav nyob ntawm seb daim ntawv npaum li cas los yog lub zog ntawm cov tshuaj.
IN CSA Schedule tsis paub.
N Tsis raug raws li Txoj Cai Tswj Cov Tshuaj.
ib Muaj peev xwm tsim txom. Tsis muaj tam sim no lees txais kev siv tshuaj kho mob hauv Tebchaws Meskas. Tsis muaj kev lees paub kev nyab xeeb rau kev siv raws li kev saib xyuas kho mob.
ob Muaj peev xwm tsim txom. Muaj tam sim no lees txais kev siv kho mob hauv kev kho mob hauv Tebchaws Meskas lossis tam sim no tau txais kev kho mob nrog kev txwv hnyav. Kev tsim txom tuaj yeem ua rau muaj kev puas siab puas ntsws lossis lub cev dependence.
3 Muaj peev xwm tsim kev tsim txom tsawg dua li cov sijhawm teev tseg 1 thiab 2. Muaj tam sim no lees txais kev siv tshuaj kho mob hauv Tebchaws Meskas. Kev tsim txom yuav ua rau muaj kev vam khom rau lub cev nruab nrab lossis qis qis lossis muaj kev puas siab puas ntsws siab.
4 Nws muaj peev xwm tsawg rau kev tsim txom ntawm cov neeg nyob hauv lub sijhawm 3. Nws muaj tam sim no lees txais kev siv tshuaj kho mob hauv Tebchaws Meskas. Kev tsim txom tuaj yeem ua rau muaj kev cia siab rau lub cev lossis kev puas siab puas ntsws rau cov neeg nyob hauv lub sijhawm 3.
5 Muaj peev xwm tsawg rau kev tsim txom cov neeg nyob hauv lub sijhawm 4. Muaj tam sim no lees txais kev siv tshuaj kho mob hauv Tebchaws Meskas. Kev tsim txom tuaj yeem ua rau muaj kev cia siab rau lub cev lossis kev puas siab puas ntsws cuam tshuam rau cov neeg nyob hauv lub sijhawm 4.
Cawv
X Interacts nrog cawv.

Saib cov kev xaiv kho mob

Cov ntaub ntawv ntxiv

Nco ntsoov sab laj nrog koj tus kws kho mob kom paub tseeb tias cov ntaub ntawv uas tshwm sim hauv nplooj ntawv no siv tau rau koj tus kheej.